There are many styles of pizza. As the dish became more international in the 20th century, the varieties of pizza grew more numerous. Here are a few:
Neapolitan pizza: True Neapolitan pizza, or, in Italian, pizza napoletana, is generally made with mozzarella cheese and tomatoes. Often the tomatoes are of the San Marzano variety, grown on the southern plains of Mount Vesuvius. The cheese is often mozzarella di bufala Campana, which uses the milk of water buffalo that has been raised in semi-wild conditions in Lazio and Campania. This kind of cheese is protected in Europe with an origin designation. The Associazione Vera Pizza Napoletana has decreed that real Neapolitan pizza dough is made up of wheat flour, either brewer’s yeast or natural Neapolitan yeast, water and salt. To achieve the correct results, high protein flour, the kinds used in making bread, not cakes, is to be used. Only hand-kneading or a mixer used at low speed is allowed. Upon rising, the dough must be hand-formed and with no greater thickness than 1/8 inch. A rolling pin or machine must not be used. The pie is baked for a minute or a minute-and-a-half in an classic pizza oven, like a Californo oven, at 905 °F. The dish should turn out fragrant, crispy and tender. Officially, the variations are: pizza marinara, made with garlic, extra virgin olive oil, tomato, and oregano. Many Neapolitan pizza restaurants add basil to the marinara; pizza Margherita, consisting of basil, sliced mozzarella cheese, tomato, and extra virgin olive oil; and pizza Margherita, extra, which is made with Campania mozzarella fillets, tomato, extra virgin olive oil and tomato. In Europe, Pizza Napoletana is an STG, or Traditional Specialty Guaranteed product.
Lazio style: In the Italian capital of Rome (Lazio), and elsewhere in Italy, pizza is offered two ways: 1. As pizza al taglio or pizza rustica, from take-away outlets. It is baked in rectangular pans and 1 to 1 centimeters thick. The crust is reminiscent of an English muffin, while an electric oven is used to bake the pizza. Sold according to weight, it is generally sliced with a knife or scissors; 2. In pizzerias, a traditionally round-shaped dish is what pizza is served in. The base is crisp and thin, which differentiates it from the softer, thicker Neapolitan-type base. Its texture and flavor comes from being baked in a wood-fired oven. Pizza Napoletana, in Rome, has toppings of mozzarella, oil, anchovies and tomato. Conversely, this pizza is known as Pizza Romano in Naples.
Varieties of pizza made in the Lazio style include:
- Pizza romana: tomato,, anchovies, oil, oregano, and mozzarella.
- Pizza viennese: German sausage, mozzarella, tomato, oil and oregano.
- Pizza capricciosa: mushrooms, mozzarella, artichokes, cooked ham, oil, tomato, and olives. Ham, or prosciutto, is often used, along with half of a hard-boiled egg. This is known as “capricious pizza.”
- Pizza quattro stagioni: ingredients are the same as the capricciosa. However, they aren’t mixed. This is known as “four seasons pizza.”
- Pizza quattro formaggi: mozzarella, gorgonzola, fontina, tomato, stracchino. This is known as “four cheese pizza.”
- Sicilian-style pizza: This type of pizza features a crust into which the toppings are directly baked. This differs from American Sicilian pizza, which generally has a rectangular, thick crust with cheese, tomato sauce and other toppings.ctly into the crust. The Sicilian pizza offered by the Pizza Hut chain since the 1990s is not considered truly Sicilian since the crust contains only basil, garlic and oregano.
- White pizza or pizza Bianca in Italian, substitutes sour cream or other dairy products or pesto for tomato sauce. In the northeast U.S., toppings generally are simply olive oil, ricotta cheese or mozzarella, along with spices such as garlic and basil. Pizza Bianca, in the Italian capital, means a kind of bread that is topped with salt, olive oil and sometimes rosemary sprigs. If white pizza is bottomed with figs, it is called pizza e fichi.
- Calzone, or ripieno is a pizza reminiscent of a turnover that contains ingredients such as salami, ricotta, and mozzarella, foled into a half circle and baked. Calzone, in Italian, translates to “large sock.” Ripieno in Italian means “filling” and should not be considered a type of pizza in itself.
Pizza Outside of Italy
By the 20th century, pizza became a global food. Basically of the same design, pizza can include an amazing variety of ingredients.
Typically Italian types of pizza are sold. Additionally, there is the Australian, which includes egg and bacon (viewed as part of a typical Australian breakfast) with a tomato base and mozzarella. Prawns are often used as a topping.
Developments in the 1980s included pizzas cooked in a masonry oven fueled by a wood fire, and gourmet-type pizzas with exotic ingredients such as bocconcini, dill, salmon and tiger prawns. Toppings as unusual as emu, kangaroo, and crocodile also began being offered.
The city of São Paulo boasts some 6,000 pizza outlets. The number of pizzas eaten each day number nearly 1.5 million. Legend has it Brazil’s first pizzas were made in São Paulo’s Bras district in the early 1900s. As the dish moved beyond Italian neighborhoods in the 1950s, its popularity with Brazilians has grown greatly. However, Italian areas such as Bela Vista and Bexiga are still where pizzerias considered traditional are found. Thin and thick crust types are both widely served in Brazil. A dessert pizza, in which chocolate, banana or pineapple is used as a topping, is also popular at meal’s end. July 10 is the culmination of a yearly competition among pizzerias in São Paulo and is known as “pizza day.”
In Indian cities, pizza is becoming a popular fast food. Nearly all large cities have restaurants from chains such as Pizza Hut and Domino’s, which arrived in the 1990s.
Pizzas are served with favorite Indian toppings such as paneer or tandoori chicken. Traditional pizzas are also consumed. Local variations that can be purchased in neighborhood shops are as common as gourmet-type pies that use exotic ingredients and are offered at specialty restaurants.
Sbarro and Pizza Hut are among the U.S. and Israeli pizza outlets that have non-kosher and kosher offerings. The kosher outlets use either no meat or imitation meat because of Jewish dietary guidelines against mixing dairy and meat. Pizza locations that are kosher also close on Passover. Pizza in Israel differs from that of other nations in its toppings. Vegetable toppings such as onions or mushrooms are common, and more exotic toppings such as labane, which is strained yogurt, corn, or spices such as za’atar are also used. As with much of Israeli cuisine, multiple cultures have contributed to the development of pizza cuisine in this country.
Pizza as a snack is popular in South Korea, particularly among women and youth. Big U.S.-based chains such as Pizza Hut, Papa John’s and Domino’s go up against domestic brands such as Pizza Etang and Mr. Pizza. Toppings on a South Korean pizza can include dak galbi and bulgogi, and well as more traditional fare. Toppings that are decidedly nontraditional are also popular and include potato wedges, shrimp, corn, crab or sweet potato. Mr. Pizza offers a “Grand Prix” style with one side of the pie featuring olives, Cajun shrimp, mushrooms and bell peppers and bacon, sour cream, tortilla chips and potato wedges on the other side. A crust is filled with potato mousse and includes raisins, pumpkin seeds and sunflower seeds, with a blueberry dipping sauce also provided.
The first pizzeria in North Korea opened its doors in 2009 in the capital city of Pyongyang.
Pizza as a fast food is growing in popularity in cities in Nepal, especially Kathmandu. Increasingly, restaurants offer pizza. Consumption has risen substantially with the arrival of several brands of pizzas from outside Nepal.
Islamabad and Karachi were the sites of the country’s first pizza restaurants in the 1980s. Pappasallis has been offering pizza since 1990 in Islamabad. The popularity of pizza has grown in eastern Pakistan, particularly Punjab, Sindh, and Azad Kashmir provinces, along with Gilgit Baltistan, the autonomous territory. Pizza is not widely known in western parts of the country. Only one of the remaining provinces in Pakistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, has a Pizza Hut, in Peshwar. Of the pizza that is consumed, sausage and spicy chicken styles are popular.
Original Italian recipes for pizza have given way to various regional styles of pizza, many of which are only slightly related to the original Italian. New York City has a thin crust kind of pizza, while Chicago has developed a thicker, deep-dish type. California-style pizza, with its exotic toppings, is popular nationwide.
Ready-to-Bake and Frozen Pizzas
As with many other foods, frozen pizza can be purchased. Technologists have created methods to allow reheating of crust without it becoming stiff, or keep the dough separate from the sauce. Corn starch that has been modified is often used as a barrier against moisture between crust and sauce. Generally, the dough is baked partially, with other ingredients sometimes being precooked. Frozen pies that have crusts that are self-rising and raw ingredients are also offered. Pizzerias also offer a type of pizza that is uncooked. Customers buy the raw pizza and bake it themselves at home.